This section of the documentation covers more advanced use-cases for
Responses as Context Managers¶
If you’re concerned about having too many TCP sockets open at any one time, you
may want to keep your connections alive only as long as you know you’ll need
them. In HTTP/2 this is generally not something you should do unless you’re
very confident you won’t need the connection again anytime soon. However, if
you decide you want to avoid keeping the connection open, you can use the
HTTPConnection as a context manager:
with HTTPConnection('http2bin.org') as conn: conn.request('GET', '/get') data = conn.get_response().read() analyse(data)
You may not use any
HTTP11Response objects obtained from a
connection after that connection is closed. Interacting with these objects when
a connection has been closed is considered undefined behaviour.
Plenty of APIs return chunked data, and it’s often useful to iterate directly
over the chunked data.
hyper lets you iterate over each data frame of a
HTTP/2 response, and each chunk of a HTTP/1.1 response delivered with
for chunk in response.read_chunked(): do_something_with_chunk(chunk)
There are some important caveats with this iteration: mostly, it’s not
guaranteed that each chunk will be non-empty. In HTTP/2, it’s entirely legal to
send zero-length data frames, and this API will pass those through unchanged.
Additionally, by default this method will decompress a response that has a
Content-Encoding: if you do that, each element of the iterator
will no longer be a single chunk, but will instead be whatever the decompressor
returns for that chunk.
If that’s problematic, you can set the
decode_content parameter to
False and, if necessary, handle the decompression yourself:
for compressed_chunk in response.read_chunked(decode_content=False): decompress(compressed_chunk)
is not thread-safe. Thread-safety is planned for
hyper‘s core objects,
but in this early alpha it is not a high priority.
hyper in a multithreaded context the recommended thing to do is to
place each connection in its own thread. Each thread should then have a request
queue and a response queue, and the thread should be able to spin over both,
sending requests and returning responses. The stream identifiers provided by
hyper can be used to match the two together.
SSL/TLS Certificate Verification¶
By default, all HTTP/2 connections are made over TLS, and
certificate authorities that it uses to verify the offered TLS certificates.
Currently certificate verification cannot be disabled.
Just like the ever-popular
hyper allows you to perform
a ‘streaming’ upload by providing a file-like object to the ‘data’ parameter.
This will cause
hyper to read the data in 1kB at a time and send it to the
remote server. You must set an accurate Content-Length header when you do
hyper won’t set it for you.
In HTTP/2 it’s mandatory that user-agents support receiving responses that
have their bodies compressed. As demonstrated in the quickstart guide,
hyper transparently implements this decompression, meaning that responses
are automatically decompressed for you. If you don’t want this to happen,
you can turn it off by passing the
decode_content parameter to
read(), like this:
>>> resp.read(decode_content=False) b'\xc9...'
Flow Control & Window Managers¶
HTTP/2 provides a facility for performing ‘flow control’, enabling both ends of a HTTP/2 connection to influence the rate at which data is received. When used correctly flow control can be a powerful tool for maximising the efficiency of a connection. However, when used poorly, flow control leads to severe inefficiency and can adversely affect the throughput of the connection.
hyper does its best to manage the flow control window for you,
trying to avoid severe inefficiencies. In general, though, the user has a much
better idea of how to manage the flow control window than
hyper will: you
know your use case better than
hyper possibly can.
For that reason,
hyper provides a facility for using pluggable window
managers. A window manager is an object that is in control of resizing the
flow control window. This object gets informed about every frame received on the
connection, and can make decisions about when to increase the size of the
receive window. This object can take advantage of knowledge from layers above
hyper, in the user’s code, as well as knowledge from
To implement one of these objects, you will want to subclass the
class and implement the
method. As a simple example, we can implement a very stupid flow control manager
that always resizes the window in response to incoming data like this:
class StupidFlowControlManager(BaseFlowControlManager): def increase_window_size(self, frame_size): return frame_size
The class can then be plugged straight into a connection object:
Note that we don’t plug an instance of the class in, we plug the class itself in. We do this because the connection object will spawn instances of the class in order to manage the flow control windows of streams in addition to managing the window of the connection itself.
HTTP/2 provides servers with the ability to “push” additional resources to clients in response to a request, as if the client had requested the resources themselves. When minimizing the number of round trips is more critical than maximizing bandwidth usage, this can be a significant performance improvement.
Servers may declare their intention to push a given resource by sending the headers and other metadata of a request that would return that resource - this is referred to as a “push promise”. They may do this before sending the response headers for the original request, after, or in the middle of sending the response body.
In order to receive pushed resources, the
HTTPConnection object must be constructed with
You may retrieve the push promises that the server has sent so far by calling
get_pushes(), which returns a
generator that yields
HTTP20Push objects. Note that
this method is not idempotent; promises returned in one call will not be
returned in subsequent calls. If
capture_all=False is passed (the default),
the generator will yield all buffered push promises without blocking. However,
capture_all=True is passed, the generator will first yield all buffered
push promises, then yield additional ones as they arrive, and terminate when the
original stream closes. Using this parameter is only recommended when it is
known that all pushed streams, or a specific one, are of higher priority than
the original response, or when also processing the original response in a
separate thread (N.B. do not do this;
hyper is not yet thread-safe):
conn.request('GET', '/') response = conn.get_response() for push in conn.get_pushes(): # all pushes promised before response headers print(push.path) conn.read() for push in conn.get_pushes(): # all other pushes print(push.path)
To cancel an in-progress pushed stream (for example, if the user already has
the given path in cache), call
hyper does not currently verify that pushed resources comply with the
Same-Origin Policy, so users must take care that they do not treat pushed
resources as authoritative without performing this check themselves (since
the server push mechanism is only an optimization, and clients are free to
issue requests for any pushed resources manually, there is little downside to
simply ignoring suspicious ones).
hyper uses its built-in pure-Python HPACK encoder and decoder.
These are reasonably efficient, and suitable for most use cases. However, they
do not produce the best compression ratio possible, and because they’re written
in pure-Python they incur a cost in memory usage above what is strictly
nghttp2 is a HTTP/2 library written in C that includes a HPACK encoder and
nghttp2‘s encoder produces extremely compressed output, and
because it is written in C it is also fast and memory efficient. For this
reason, performance conscious users may prefer to use
implementation instead of
You can do this very easily. If
nghttp2‘s Python bindings are installed,
hyper will transparently switch to using
nghttp2‘s HPACK implementation
instead of its own. No configuration is required.
Instructions for installing
nghttp2 are available here.